GM Free Cymru

GM Crops - the health effects" Soil Association, Feb 2008

This is a very useful and comprehensive check-list of the key references relating to the health effects of GM crops. With acknowledgement to:

Gundula Azeez and Coilin Nunan, 2008 "GM Crops -- the health effects" Soil Association, Feb 2008, 10 pp. (PDF) cfff6730b881e40e80256a6a002a765c/62b3b08dfb6cdaea80256a9500473789/ $FILE/gm_health_effects.pdf

1 “GMOs: should they be fed to farm livestock?”, in The Chemical Engineer, Issue 746, by David Beever and Richard Phipps, Centre for Dairy Research, University of Reading

2 “Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in rumen fluid, duodenal digesta, milk, blood, and feces of lactating dairy cows”, J Dairy Sci., vol. 86, pp. 4070–4078, Phipps R.H., Deaville E.R. and Maddison B.C., 2003

3 “Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11”, J Food Prot, vol. 67, pp. 365–370, Chowdhury E.H., Mikami O., Murata H., Sultana P., Shimada N., Yoshioka M., Guruge K.S., Yamamoto S., Miyazaki S., Yamanaka N. and Nakajima Y., 2004

4 “The fate of forage plant DNA in farm animals : a collaborative case-study investigating cattle and chicken fed recombinant plant material”, European food research and technology, vol. 212, pp. 129–134, Einspanier R., Klotz A., Kraft J., Aulrich K., Poser R., Schwagele F., Jahreis G. and Flachowsky G., 2001

5 “Detection of transgenic DNA in milk from cows receiving herbicide tolerant (CP4EPSPS) soyabean meal”, Livestock Production Science, Phipps R.H., Beever D.E. and Humphries D.J., 2002. vol. 74, pp. 269–273

6 “Detection of Transgenic and Endogenous Plant DNA in Digesta and Tissues of Sheep and Pigs Fed Roundup Ready Canola Meal”, J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 54, pp. 1699–1709, Sharma R., Damgaard D., Alexander T.W., Dugan M.E.R., Aalhus J.L., Stanford K. and McAllister T.A., 2006

7 “Assessing the transfer of genetically modified DNA from feed to animal tissues”, Transgenic Res., vol. 14, pp. 775–784, Mazza R., Soave M., Morlacchini M., Piva G. and Marocco A., 2005

8 “Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from the Italian market”, Int J Hyg Environ Health, vol. 209, pp. 81–88, Agodi A., Barchitta M., Grillo A. and Sciacca S., 2006

9 “How do genes get into milk?”, Greenpeace, 2004

10 “Report on examination to determine plant and Bt-maize residues in cow milk”, conducted at the Weihenstephan research centre for milk and foodstuffs of the Technical University of Munich- Freising, Ralf Einspanier, 20 October 2000 and 20 December 2000

11 “Tools you can trust”, New Scientist, Michel Le Page, 10 June 2006

12 “Food Standards Agency news”, No. 48, June 2005. ‘The mutational consequences of plant transformation”, J Biomed Biotechnol., 2006(2):25376, Latham J.R., Wilson A.K., Steinbrecher R.A., 2006

13 “Transgenic expression of bean alpha-amylase inhibitor in peas results in altered structure and immunogenicity”, J Agric Food Chem., vol 53, pp. 9023–9030, Prescott V.E., Campbell P.M., Moore A., Mattes J., Rothenberg M.E., Foster P.S., Higgins T.J. and Hogan S.P., 2005

14 “GM pea causes allergic damage in mice”, New, Emma Young, 21 November 2005

15 “Frankenstein peas”, Ecologist, Jeffrey Smith, March 2006

16 “Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract”, Nature Biotechnology, vol. 22, pp. 204–209, Netherwood T., Martin- Orúe S.M., O’Donnell A.G.O., Gockling S., Graham J., Mathers J.C. and Gilbert H.J., 2004

17 “Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep”, British Journal of Nutrition, 89(2): 159-166, Duggan et al, 2003

18 “Characterization of commercial GMO inserts: a source of useful material to study genome fluidity”, Poster presented at ICPMB: International Congress for Plant Molecular Biology (n°VII), Barcelona, Collonier C., Berthier G., Boyer F., Duplan M.-N., Fernandez S., Kebdani N., Kobilinsky A., Romanuk M. and Bertheau Y., 23–28 June 2003

19 “Dead babies”, Ecologist, Jeffrey Smith, December/ January 2006

20 “Unstable transgenic lines illegal”, Institute of Science in Society, Mae-Wan Ho, 3 December 2003

21 “Safety evaluation of foods derived by modern biotechnology”, OECD, 1993

22 Alliance for Bio-Integrity,

23 “Elements of precaution: recommendations for the regulation of food biotechnology in Canada”, An Expert Panel Report on the Future of Biotechnology prepared by the Royal Society of Canada at the request of Health Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Environment Canada, The Royal Society of Canada, January 2001

24 “Beyond substantial equivalence”, Nature, vol. 401, pp. 525–526, Millstone E., Brunner E. and Mayer S., 1999

25 “The use of substantial equivalence in the risk assessment of GM food”,, Janet Bainbridge, May 2001

26 “Safety assessment of Roundup Ready soybean event 40–3–2”, Monsanto,

27 “Genetically modified organisms and biological risks”, Proceedings of the International Disaster Reduction Conference, Davos, Switzerland, Ermakova I.V., August–September 2006, pp. 168–171

28 “Genetically modified soy leads to the decrease of weight and high mortality of rat pups of the first generation”, preliminary studies. EcosInform 2006, 1, 4–9 (in Russian), Ermakova IV. A fuller paper is in press: “Genetics and ecology”, in: “Actual problems of science”, Moscow, 2005, pp.53–59 (in Russian), Ermakova IV

29 “Reply to ACNFP from Dr Irina Ermakova”, Irina Ermakova,, 28 September 2006

30 “Statement on the effect of GM soya on new-born rats”, The Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes (ACNFP), 2005

31 “A generational study of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on mouse fetal, postnatal, pubertal and adult testicular development”, Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 42, pp. 29–36, Brake D.G. and Evenson D.P., 2004

32 “Pusztai responds to ACNFP over Ermakova”, Arpad Pusztai,, 19 January 2006

33 “Fine structural analyses of pancreatic acinar cell nuclei from mice fed on GM soybean”, Eur. J. Histochem., vol. 47 pp. 385–388, Malatesta M., Biggiogera M., Manuali E., Rocchi M.B.L., Baldelli B. and Gazzanelli G, 2003

34 “Ultrastructural morphometrical and immunocytochemical analyses of hepatocyte nuclei from mice fed on genetically modified soybean”, Cell Struct. Funct., vol. 27, pp. 73–180, Malatesta M., Caporaloni C., Gavaudan S., Rocchi M.B.L., Tiberi C. and Gazzanelli G., 2002

35 “Ultrastructural analysis of pancreatic acinar cells from mice fed on genetically modifed soybean”, J. Anat., vol. 201, pp. 409–416, Malatesta M., Caporaloni C., Rossi L., Battistelli S., Rocchi M.B.L., Tonucci F. and Gazzanelli G, 2002

36 “Reversibility of hepatocyte nuclear modifications in mice fed on genetically modified soybean”, Eur. J. Histochem., vol. 49, pp. 237–242, Malatesta M., Tiberi C., Baldelli B., Battistelli S., Manuali E and Biggiogera B., 2005

37 “Ultrastructural analysis of testes from mice fed on genetically modified soybean’”, Eur. J. Histochem., vol. 48, pp. 449–45, Vecchio L., Cisterna B., Malatesta M., Martin T.E. and Biggiogera B., 2004

38 “The fate of transgenes in the human gut”, Nature Biotechnology, vol. 22, pp.170–172, Heritage J., 2004

39 “13–Week Dietary Subchronic Comparison Study with MON 863 Corn in Rats Preceded by a 1-Week Baseline Food Consumption Determination with PMI Certified Rodent Diet #5002”, Monsanto’s report on its 90-day rat feeding trial of MON 863 submitted to EFSA, the European body which approves GMOs, as part of its application for approval of the maize (1139 pages), 17 December 2002, www. Reviewed by Dr Arpad Pusztai for the German environment agency BfN, in September and November 2004, available on:

40 “Cause for concern”, Ecologist, Jeffrey Smith, October 2005

41 “New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity”, Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 52(4): 596–602, Séralini GE, Cellier D, de Vendomois JS, May 2007

42 “Throwing caution to the wind”, Friends of the Earth Europe, November 2004

43 “Commission decision of 13 January 2006 authorising the placing on the market of foods and food ingredients derived from genetically modified maize line MON 863 as novel foods or novel food ingredients under Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council

44 “Non-suitability of genetically engineered feed for animals”, Report for the Chardon LL Hearing by Eva Novotny, Scientists for Global Responsibility, May 2002. Chardon LL Hearing: Analysis of “The Chicken Study”, The effect of glufosinate resistant corn on growth of male broiler chickens, Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, University of Guelph, November 2000. Also, review in “Food safety – contaminants and toxins”, CABI Publishing, 2003

45 Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Biotechnology Consultation Note to the File BNF No. 000077”, September 4, 2002

46 Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on a request from the Commission related to the Notification (Reference C/NL/98/11) for the placing on the market of herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape GT73, for import and processing, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Monsanto1 (Question N° EFSA-Q-2003-078) Opinion adopted on 11 February 2004

47 Unpublished studies carried out for Calgene and at the request of the FDA respectively, in early 1990s, in reviewed “Food safety – contaminants and toxins”, CABI Publishing, 2003

48 “Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine’”, vol. 354, pp. 1353–1354, Ewen S.W. and Pusztai A., 1999